U赢电竞app

中华5000多年文明的考古实证

来源:U赢电竞app_U赢电竞手机版_主页 作者: 王 巍 2019-01-16 09:00:00

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文明起源的标准是什么

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U赢电竞app  DIER,SHEHUICHUXIANMINGXIANDEJIEJIFENHUA,CHUXIANWANGQUAN。SHEHUIJIECENGFENHUAXIANZHU,SHAOBUFENSHEHUISHANGCENGJINGYINGLONGDUANSHEHUIGUANLIQUAN(RUJUNSHIZHIHUIQUAN、YUANSHIZONGJIAOJISIQUAN),CHUXIANZUIGAOTONGZHIZHE——WANG,XINGCHENGYANGEDESHEHUIDENGJIZHIDUJIWEIHUSHEHUIDENGJIZHIDUGUIFANDELIZHI。GUIZU、QUANGUIKONGZHIYAN、TONGDENGZHONGYAODEJINGJIZIYUANYIJIGAODENGJISHOUGONGYEZHIPINDESHENGCHANHEFENPEI。CHUXIANMAIZANGWANG、QITAGAODENGJIQUANGUIJIECENGDEZHUANMENMUDIHESUIZANGGAODENGJILIQIDEDAXINGMUZANG。

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以良渚文明为中心的长江下游地区5000多年文明的实证

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  在良渚城址以北靠近丘陵的地带,修建了由多条水坝组成的规模庞大、结构完整的水利系统,这是中国迄今发现的最早的大型水利工程、世界最早拦洪水坝系统。这充分表明,位于良渚社会顶层的阶层拥有了高度的规划能力和社会动员能力。图为良渚古城外围大型水利工程的调查发掘现场(资料照片)。 新华社发 中国文物报社供图

  发达的农业。良渚文化时期的长江下游地区,农业已经较为发达。在良渚附近的茅山遗址,发现了大面积的水田,还发现了牛的脚印。良渚文化遗址中还多次出土木柄石头犁铧,说明当时牛耕已经较为普遍,犁耕稻作农业有了很大发展。在良渚古城内高台上的高等级建筑附近,还发现了上万斤的炭化稻谷堆积,经鉴定,这些稻谷属于人工栽培稻。这从一个角度印证了良渚发达的稻作农业是良渚文明得以繁荣的重要经济基础。

  手工业分工精细、技术发达,高端手工业被权贵阶层所控制和垄断。U赢电竞app良渚文化的手工业技术已比较发达且趋于专业化,玉石制作、制陶、木作、竹器编织、丝麻纺织等都达到较高水平,特别是在良渚古城内城中发现了制玉的手工业作坊,出土了各类玉器,其数量多、品种丰富、雕琢精美,采用透雕或减地浮雕技法,纹饰刻画精细,显示出当时的玉器制作技术已经相当高超。玉器在当时的良渚社会是高等级身份的体现物,如象征神权的玉琮、玉璧和象征军权的玉钺都只出土于大型墓葬中,说明当时已经出现了专业化的为贵族阶层U赢电竞app的高端手工业。

  具备对社会资源的控制和调动能力,能够动员组织大量人力进行大规模公共事业U赢电竞app。U赢电竞app良渚古城内城的城墙墙基宽达40米到60米,在墙基底部铺垫一层石块,石块上面堆筑黄土,这些石块和黄土都是从别处运来的,工程量非常巨大。在城址以北靠近丘陵的地带,修建了由多条水坝组成的规模庞大、结构完整的水利系统,可能兼具有防洪、灌溉、运输等多种功能。其中,仅塘山主坝就长达5000米,高7米。大规模水坝兴建的总土方量达上千万立方米,如果动员一万劳动力,至少需要十多年的时间才能完成。这充分表明,位于良渚社会顶层的权贵阶层拥有高度的规划能力和社会动员能力。

  社会出现明显的阶级分化。在良渚古城内,发现了人工堆筑的高十几米、面积达30万平方米的巨型高台,台上有多座大型高等级建筑,这应是城内最高等级的权贵——王的居所。在良渚古城城内的反山和城外的瑶山等地,发现了多处修建在祭坛上的贵族墓地,这些墓葬不仅规模大,而且随葬品种类数量众多,有制作精良的玉器,包括带有神徽的外方内圆的玉琮、圆形的玉璧等祭祀用具以及武器——玉钺,表明墓主人生前拥有主持宗教祭祀和军事指挥的权力,而同时期一般社会成员的墓葬随葬品则寥寥无几。这种悬殊的差别表明,当时的社会已经出现了严重的阶层分化和严格的等级制度,产生了由王、官僚和富贵阶层构成的统治阶级和广大庶民构成的被统治阶级,人类由平等走向分化,社会由简单趋于复杂,这是社会发生质变的表现。

  形成了稳定的区域性政体。除了良渚古城,在太湖东南岸的长江下游地区,分布着兴化蒋庄、常州寺墩、昆山赵陵山、上海福泉山等良渚文化的大型遗址。虽然这些遗址和墓葬的规模以及随葬玉器的规格和数量逊于良渚古城,但高等级墓葬随葬的玉器带有与良渚古城墓葬玉器同样的神徽,表明这些地方与良渚古城具有相同的经济模式、宗教信仰和祭祀体系、社会结构和资源调配模式。当时,已经形成以都城(良渚遗址)为中心,多个次中心、中型聚落和小型聚落构成的四级金字塔式层级社会结构,出现了掌握军事指挥权和宗教祭祀权力的王,及其统治下的较为稳定的行政控制区域。这实际上就是最初的国家。

  战争成为常态。U赢电竞app良渚文化高等级墓葬中较普遍地以武器——玉石钺随葬,一些墓葬人骨中可以看到被兵器砍后留下的痕迹,说明暴力和战争已成为常见的社会现象。

U赢电竞app  ZONGSHANGSUOSHU,YOULIYOURENWEI,JUJIN5000NIANQIANHOU,YILIANGZHUSHEHUIWEIDAIBIAODEZHANGJIANGXIAYOUDIQUYIJINGJINRULEWENMINGSHEHUI。2019NIAN7YUE6RI,ZAIASAIBAIJIANGSHOUDOUBAKUJUXINGDEDI43JIESHIJIEYICHANDAHUISHANG,SHIJIEYICHANWEIYUANHUIRENWEI: “LIANGZHUGUCHENGYIZHIZHANXIANLEYIGECUNZAIYUZHONGGUOXINSHIQISHIDAIWANQIDEYIDAOZUONONGYEWEIJINGJIZHICHENG、BINGCUNZAISHEHUIFENHUAHETONGYIXINYANGTIXIDEZAOQIQUYUXINGGUOJIAXINGTAI,YINZHENGLEZHANGJIANGLIUYUDUIZHONGHUAWENMINGQIYUANDEJIECHUGONGXIAN。”LIANGZHUGUCHENGYIZHIHUOZHUNLIERU《SHIJIEYICHANMINGLU》,LIANGZHUWENMINGDEDAOLEGUOJIRENKE。

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  ZAIJIANGSUDONGSHANCUNYIZHI,FAXIANLEJUJIN5800NIANQIANHOUDEGONGGONGMUDI。MUDINEIFAXIANLESHUSHIZUOMUZANG,MUZANGDEGUIMOHESUIZANGPINZHONGLEISHULIANGXIANGCHAXUANSHU。XIAOXINGMUJINNENGRONGSHEN,SUIZANGSHUJIANTAOQI;DAXINGMUBIXIAOXINGMUDASHUBEI,SUIZANGDUOJIANYUSHIZHIZHUANGSHIPIN、WUQIHEGONGJUYIJISHUSHIJIANTAOQI。MUDIFUJINFAXIANDAXINGJIANZHUJIZHI,KENENGSHIQUANGUIJIECENGDEJUSUO。DONGSHANCUNYIZHIDEFAXIANBIAOMING,ZAIJUJIN5800NIANZUOYOU,ZHANGJIANGXIAYOUDIQUYIJINGCHUXIANJIAOWEIMINGXIANDEPINFUFENHUA。

  在江苏东山村遗址,发现了距今5800年前后的公共墓地。这一发现表明,在距今5800年左右,长江下游地区已经出现了较为明显的贫富分化。图为东山村遗址90号大墓中出土的陶器和石钺。 江苏省考古研究所供图

U赢电竞app  ANHUINANBUDELINGJIATANYIZHI,JUJIN5500NIANDAO5200NIANJIAN,SHILIANGZHUWENHUAQIANSHEN——SONGZEWENHUASHIQIDEANHUINANBUZHONGXINXINGYIZHI。ZHEILIFAXIANLEDAXINGJIANZHUJIZHIQU、DAMIANJIJISIYIJIQUHEJINQIANZUOMUZANGGOUCHENGDEMUZANGQU。XIAOXINGMUDESUIZANGPINYUDAXINGMUDESUIZANGPINZAISHULIANGHEZHONGLEISHANGXINGCHENGXIANMINGDUIBI。TEBIEYINRENZHUMUDESHI,ZAIMUZHURENDESHENTIZHOUWEISUIZANGYOUSHUSHIJIANWUQI——YUSHIYUE,TOUBUFUJINYOUFUZAJINGMEIDEYUSHISHIJIAN。MEIZUODAXINGMUDOUSUIZANGYIJIANYUREN,HUOZHANHUODUN,XINGXIANGBIZHEN。YOUDEDAXINGMUZANGHAISUIZANGYULONG、YUNIAOHEYUGUI。ZHEIXIEKAOGUFAXIAN,FANYINGCHUJUJIN5500NIANDAO5200NIANJIANDEZHANGJIANGXIAYOUDIQU,SHEHUIFENHUAJIAJU,QUANGUIJIECENGZHANGWOJUNSHIZHIHUIQUANHEZONGJIAOJISIQUAN,TAMENLIYONGSHOUZHONGDEQUANLI,JIANGDALIANGSHEHUICAIFUJUWEIJIYOU,XINGCHENGLELINGJIAYUSHEHUIZHISHANGDETONGZHIZHE,DANGSHIDESHEHUIKENENGJIJIANGHUOYIJINGJINRUWENMINGSHEHUI。CIHOU,ZAIJUJIN5000NIANZUOYOU,ZAIZHANGJIANGXIAYOUDIQUCHUXIANLEYILIANGZHUGUCHENGWEIZHONGXINDELIANGZHUWENMING。

多元一体、绵延不断的中华文明

  ZHONGHUA5000DUONIANWENMINGBUSHIZHIYOULIANGZHUWENMINGZHEIYIGEGUZHENG。KAOGUFAXIANZHENGSHI,ZAIJUJIN5800NIANQIANHOU,XILIAOHELIUYU、HUANGHELIUYUHEZHANGJIANGZHONGYOUDENGQUYU,DOUCHUXIANLESHEHUIFENHUAJIWENMINGQIYUANDEJIXIANG。JUJIN5300NIANYILAI,ZHONGHUADADIGEDIQULUXUJINRULEQUYUWENMINGJIEDUAN,CHENGXIANCHUDUOYUANWENMINGBAIHUAQIFANGDEJUMIAN,ZUIZHONGZAIXIANGHUUYINGDIANJINGappJIEJIANZHONGXINGCHENGLEYIZHONGYUANDIQUWEIHEXINDEYITIHUAGEJU,BINGMIANYANSHUQIANNIANBUCENGZHONGDUAN。

  辽河流域文明的曙光。U赢电竞app牛河梁遗址是红山文化晚期的大型祭祀中心和高等级墓地,位于西辽河流域,距今5500年到5000年。考古过程中,在遗址范围内的40多个山头上发现了用石头修建的大型圆形祭坛和方形积石墓,墓内随葬玉人、玉鸟、玉龟等精美玉器。在牛河梁遗址群地势最高的第一地点,发现了沿山脊由低向高逐层修建的一处规模庞大、由多层砌石台面和建筑构成的大型台状遗迹,台面上残存的石构建筑和出土的各型用于礼仪活动的塔形器、筒形器等遗物,表明此地极有可能是当时辽西地区红山文明的宗教和礼仪活动中心。在该祭台南侧,发现一座神庙遗迹,内有大量泥塑女神像,形体最大的达真人三倍,还发现了龙、熊、鹰等塑像残块。这处遗址极有可能是供奉当时的祭祀对象——女神的庙宇。在遗址所在的辽西地区,还新发现了面积达100多万平方米的大型中心性遗址的线索,可能是当时该地区的政治中心。可以看出,当时的辽河流域出现了掌握着宗教祭祀权力的权贵阶层,他们死后被埋在宗教圣地,并随葬精美玉器,说明当时的手工业已经比较发达,出现了表明等级身份的礼器,社会分化已经相当严重,已经到达了文明社会的门槛。

  中原地区的文明起源。距今6000年到5500年的河南西部三门峡市灵宝铸鼎原遗址群,发现了前所未有的现象: 数个面积达数十万乃至上百万平方米的大、中型聚落遗址密集地分布在一起。在对该遗址群中规模最大的三个遗址之一的西坡遗址的发掘中发现,遗址周围用宽十几米、深数米的壕沟护卫。遗址的中心区是一处广场,广场附近有数座大型房址,每座房址的室内面积达240平方米,加上周围的辅助设施,总面积达500平方米。房屋的地面和墙壁经过加工,十分平整光滑,可能是当时权贵阶层的居所和举行重要仪式的场所。在壕沟外侧,发现了公共墓地,其中一座墓葬规模比一般墓葬大数倍。墓主人是一青年男性,身旁随葬一件制作较为精良的武器——玉钺,脚端随葬十几件陶器。这个遗址群是中原地区发现的最早的出现明显社会分化的例证。遗址所在地名为铸鼎原,传说黄帝曾在此地铸鼎,因而得名。在有黄帝传说之地出现了中原地区最早的大型高等级聚落密集分布的情况,十分耐人寻味。

U赢电竞app  JUJIN5500NIANZUOYOU,YUXIDIQUDEZHUDINGYUANYIZHIQUNSHUAILUO,DAIZHIERQIDESHIZAIHENANZHONGBUCHUXIANLESHUGEDAZHONGXINGJULUO,ANSHIZHONGYUANDIQUDEZHENGZHIZHONGXINYOUHENANXIBUYIDAOLEHENANZHONGBU。JINNIANFAXIANDEGONGYISHUANGHUAISHUYIZHIJUJIN5500NIANDAO5000NIANJIAN,SHICISHIQIHENANZHONGBUGUIMOZUIDA、DENGJIZUIGAODEJULUOYIZHI,YINGSHIDANGSHIZHONGYUANDIQUDEZHENGZHIZHONGXIN。SHUANGHUAISHUYIZHIDEZHUYAOFAXIANYOU: YIGEYOUSANZHONGHUANHAOWEIRAODEDAXINGJULUO,ZHENGGEYIZHIMIANJI117WANPINGFANGMIZUOYOU;YOUSANCHUGONGGONGMUDI,MUZANGMINGXIANFENPAI,QIZHONGLIANGCHUMUDIZHONGDOUFAXIANYOUYIGEHANGTUTAI,LINGYICHUMUDISIZHOUBEIWEIGOUWEIRAO;ZAINEIHUANHAOHUANRAOXINGCHENGDE18000PINGFANGMIKONGJIANZHONG,FAXIANSANPAICHENGZUDEDAXINGJIANZHU,ZONGMIANJIYUE2400DUOPINGFANGMI,JIANZHUJIZHIBENSHENYUE1800PINGFANGMI;FAXIANYOU9GEYOUYIMAIFANGCHENGBEIDOUXINGXINGZHUANGDETAOGUAN。ZAITONGSHIQIDEQINGTAIYIZHI,YEFAXIANLEISIDEYOU9GEMAIFANGCHENGBEIDOUXINGXINGZHUANGDETAOGUAN。SHUANGHUAISHUYIZHIDEKAOGUFAXIANBIAOMING,ZAIJUJIN5500NIANDAO5000NIANJIAN,ZHONGYUANDIQUDESHEHUIFENHUAGENGJIAYANZHONG,CHENGWEIQUANGUOFANWEINEITONGSHIQISHEHUIFENHUAZUIWEIMINGXIANDEDIQUZHIYI,SHISHIZHENGZHONGYUANDIQU5000DUONIANWENMINGDEZHONGYAOZHENGJU。

  长江中游江汉文明的诞生。U赢电竞app在长江中游地区的江汉平原,大约距今5000年前后的屈家岭文化晚期,社会分化也达到了一个新的阶段。这一时期出现了天门谭家岭、城河城等多座城址,规模大的面积达数十万平方米。城址周围有宽达数十米的壕沟环绕,城外设置公共墓地,墓葬的规模和随葬品数量、种类相差悬殊。男性大墓的墓主人普遍随葬一件制作精良的武器——玉石钺,反映出他们是掌握了社会军事指挥权力的军事首长,并依据手中的权力聚敛了大量社会财富。

  黄河下游的文明起源。U赢电竞app黄河下游地区的史前文化后于黄河中游地区,与淮河流域的文化关系密切。在山东章丘焦家遗址,发现了大约距今4800年前后的公共墓地。几座规模较大的墓葬中随葬制作精美的玉器和彩陶器等,最多的达近百件。墓主人为男性的大墓中,都随葬武器——玉石钺。墓葬规模和随葬品种类、数量差别悬殊,表明山东西部地区和其他地区一样,出现了严重的社会分化,已迈进了文明社会的门槛。

  SHANGSHUGEDIDALIANGDEKAOGUFAXIANBIAOMING,ZAIJUJIN5000NIANQIANHOU,ZAINONGYEHESHOUGONGYEFAZHANDEJICHUSHANG,ZHONGHUADADIGEGEDIQUDOUCHUXIANLEYANZHONGDEGUIJIAN、PINFUFENHUA,XIANGJICHUXIANLEJIJUNQUAN、SHENQUANJISHEHUIGUANLIQUANYUYISHENDEWANG,LUXUJINRULEWENMINGJIEDUAN。CHUQIDEZHONGHUAWENMINGSHIJISHANGSHIZAIHUANGHE、ZHANGJIANGHEXILIAOHELIUYUDENGDILIFANWEINEIZHANKAIBINGJIECHENGDEYIGEJUDADEWENMINGCONGTI。ZAIZHEIGECONGTINEIBU,GEQUYUZAIQIWENMINGHUAJINCHENG(JICONGWENMINGQIYUANDAOXINGCHENGHEZAOQIFAZHANGUOCHENG)ZHONG,ZAIGEZIDEHUANJINGJICHU、SHEHUIZUZHIJIEGOUHEYUNZUOJIZHIYIJIZONGJIAOHESHEHUIYISHIDENGFANGMIAN,CUNZAIGEZHONGGEYANGDECHABIE,CHENGXIANCHUGEJUTESEDEDUOYUANJUMIAN。GEGEQUYUWENMINGZAIBICIJINGZHENG、XIANGDUIDULIDEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,XIANGHUUYINGDIANJINGappJIEJIAN,CHENGXIANCHUYITIHUAQUSHI。ZAIXIANGDANGYUYAOSHUNYUDESHIQI,ZHEIZHONGYITIHUAQUSHIGENGJIAMINGXIANDIBIAOXIANZAIZHONGYUANDIQU。ZHONGYUANDIQUZHEIGESHIQIPINGJIETIANXIAJUZHONGDERENWENDILIYOUSHIHEDUOPINZHONGNONGZUOWUDEZHONGZHIZHIDU,GUANGFANXISHOUZHOUWEIWENHUADEXIANJINYINSU,XINGCHENGLEYIMINGZUNBEIWEIMUDE、YILIYIWEIZHUYAOBIAOXIANXINGSHI、YIKAIFANGBAORONGWEIZHONGYAOTEDIANDELIZHI,CHENGWEIYIZHONGGENGWEICHENGSHUDEWENMINGXINGTAI,DUIZHOUWEIGUANGDAQUYUSHIJIALEQIANGLIEYINGXIANG,DUICUJINZHOUWEIDIQUWENMINGDEFAZHANJIZHONGHUAWENMINGTONGYIXINGDEXINGCHENGFAHUILEZHONGYAOZUOYONG,CHENGWEIZHONGHUAWENMINGDEZHUGEN、ZHUYUANHEDUOYUANYITIDEZHONGHUAWENMINGZONGJINCHENGDEHEXINYUYINLINGZHE。

  中华文明考古发现充分证明,文明因U赢电竞app而多彩、因互鉴而丰富和发展。东北地区西部的红山文化高等级墓葬,和与其大体同时的安徽凌家滩遗址贵族墓葬,都出土了形制十分相近的玉人、玉龙、玉龟和玉鸟。左图为红山文化遗址出土的玉人,右图为安徽凌家滩遗址出土的玉人。 新华社记者 汪永基/摄

  ZHONGHUAWENMINGKAOGUFAXIANBIAOMING,WENMINGDECUNXUFAZHAN,BIXUYIJINGJIFAZHANWEIYOULIZHICHENG。JUJIN10000NIANQIAN,UYINGDIANJINGappGUOKAISHICHUXIANZUICHUDEZAIPEINONGYE,BEIFANGSHISUHESHU,NANFANGSHIDAO,WEIWENMINGDEQIYUANDIANDINGLEJICHU。JUJIN8000NIANQIANHOU,NONGYEYOULECHUBUFAZHAN,ZHITAO、ZHIGUNAIZHIZHUOYUDENGSHOUGONGYEYEQUDELEJINBU,KAISHICHUXIANSHEHUIFENGONGHESHEHUIFENHUADEDUANNI。DANSHISHEHUIHAIMEIYOUCHUXIANMINGXIANDEJIECENGFENHUA。JUJIN6000NIANQIANHOU,NONGYEXIANZHUFAZHAN,RENKOUZENGJIA,CHUXIANMIANJIZAI100WANPINGFANGMIZUOYOUDEDAXINGYIZHIHEGUIMOJIAODADEMUZANG,SHEHUIKAISHICHUXIANMINGXIANFENHUA,WENMINGHUAJINCHENGJIAKUAI。ERDAOLEJUJIN5000NIANQIANHOU,ZHANGJIANGZHONGXIAYOU、HUANGHEZHONGXIAYOUHEXILIAOHELIUYUDENGYIXIEWENMINGHUAJINCHENGJIAOKUAIDEDIQU,SHEHUIFENHUAJIAJU,CHUXIANLEZHANGWOJUNSHIZHIHUIQUANHEZONGJIAOJISIQUANLIDEWANGQUAN,LVXIANJINRULEQUYUWENMING(GUGUOWENMING)SHEHUI。ZONGGUANZHONGHUAWENMINGDEQIYUANHEFAZHANDEGUOCHENG,RUGUOMEIYOUNONGYEHESHOUGONGYEDEFAZHAN,JIUBUHUIYOUSHENGYUCHANPINDECHUXIANHEJIEJIDEFENHUA,YEJIUBUHUIYOUGUOJIADECHANSHENGHEWENMINGDEFAZHANJINBU。TONGSHI,KAOGUFAXIANYEZHENGMING,UYINGDIANJINGappHUJIANSHIWENMINGFAZHANDEBENZHIYAOQIU。RUJUJIN5800NIANDAO5300NIANJIAN,ZHONGYUANDIQUYANGSHAOWENHUAMIAODIGOULEIXINGYIHUAHENIAOTUANWEITEDIANDECAITAO,CENGXIANGZHOUWEIXIANGDANGGUANGKUODEDIQUSHIJIAYINGXIANG,NANDAZHANGJIANGZHONGYOU、BEIDIHETAODIQU、DONGJIHUANGHEXIAYOU、XIZHIGANQINGDIQU,XINGCHENGLESHIQIANSHIQIDIYICIZHONGYUANSHIQIANWENHUAXIANGZHOUWEIDEFUSHE。ZHIDEZHUYIDESHI,DONGBEIDIQUXIBUDEHONGSHANWENHUAGAODENGJIMUZANG,HEYUQIDATITONGSHIDEANHUIHANSHANLINGJIATANYIZHIGUIZUMUZANG,DOUCHUTULEXINGZHISHIFENXIANGJINDEYUREN、YULONG、YUGUIHEYUNIAO。BIAOMINGLIANGDIDEGAODENGJIJIECENGJIANCUNZAIZHEMOUZHONGLIANXI。LIANGZHUWENHUADEJISIYONGDAIBIAOXINGYUQI——WAIFANGNEIYUANDEYUCONGHECHENGYUANHUANXINGDEYUBI,ZAIHUANANDIQUDEGUANGDONGSHIXIAYIZHI、SHANXIXIANGFENTAOSIYIZHIHESHANBEIYULINSHENMUSHIMAOYIZHIDOUYOUFAXIAN。ZHONGHUAWENMINGZAIQIYUANYUZAOQIFAZHANJIEDUANXINGCHENGDEHUXIANGJIEJIANHEJIANSHOUBINGXUNENGLI,CHENGWEIQICHIXUFAZHANDEDONGLIYUANQUAN,CONGZHONGYUNYUCHUGONGTONGWENHUAJIDIAN、XINLIRENTONG、LIZHICHUANTONG,DIANDINGLEZHONGHUAWENMINGMIANYANBUDUANFAZHANDEJICHU。

  ZUOZHE: ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANXUEBUWEIYUAN、LISHIXUEBUZHUREN,ZHONGHUAWENMINGTANYUANGONGCHENG(2001—2016NIAN)SHOUXIZHUANJIA

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