U赢电竞app

保护传承敦煌文化 增强中华文化自信

来源:U赢电竞app_U赢电竞手机版_主页 作者: 樊锦诗 2019-02-16 09:00:00

U赢电竞app  2019NIAN8YUE19RIXIAWU,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIDAODUNHUANGYANJIUYUANSHICHAMOGAOKU、CHAKANZHENZANGWENWUHEXUESHUCHENGGUOZHANSHI,LEJIEWENWUBAOHUHEHONGYANGCHUANCHENGDUNHUANGWENHUAYISHUQINGKUANG,TONGDUNHUANGYANJIUYUANDEZHUANJIA、XUEZHEHEWENHUADANWEIDAIBIAOZUOTANBINGFABIAOZHONGYAOJIANGHUA。ZUOWEIYIMINGBISHENGCONGSHIDUNHUANGMOGAOKUBAOHUYANJIUDEWENWUGONGZUOZHE,WOQINERLINGTINGXIJINPINGZONGSHUJIDUIDUNHUANGWENHUABAOHUCHUANCHENGGONGZUODEZHONGYAOJIANGHUA,BEIGANZHENFEN。XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIDEJIANGHUASHIUYINGDIANJINGappZUOHAOWENWUGONGZUODEZHONGYAOZHIZHEN,JILIUYINGDIANJINGappZHUJIUZHONGHUAWENHUAXINHUIHUANG。

  敦煌文化是各种文明长期U赢电竞app融汇的结晶

  XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIJIANGHUAZHONGSHENKEZHICHU: DUNHUANGWENHUASHIGEZHONGWENMINGZHANGQIUYINGDIANJINGappRONGHUIDEJIEJING。WOGUOZIHANDAIYILAILIANGQIANDUONIANDELISHIZHANGHEZHONG,DUNHUANGSHIZHONGYIZHONGHUACHUANTONGWENMINGWEIGENJI,BUDUANXINAZHELAIZIQITADIYUHEMINZUDEWENMINGCHENGGUO。DUOYUANYITIDEDUNHUANGWENHUASHIZHONGCHUANCHENGZHEZHONGHUACHUANTONGWENHUADEJINGHUA,TONGSHIYOUSHANYAOZHEGUDAIYINDUWENMING、BOSIWENMING、XILAWENMINGDECUICANGUANGMANG,CHENGWEIJUSHIZHUMU、TESEXIANMINGDEDIYUWENHUA。

  DUNHUANG,DICHUHEXIZOULANGXIDUAN,XILINXIYU。SICHOUZHILUKAITONGHOU,ZI“XIHAI”(DIZHONGHAI、LIHAI)DONGXINGJINGXIYUMENHUYIWU、GAOCHANG、SHANSHANSANDAO,ZONGCOUDUNHUANG。ZUOWEIHANWANGCHAODEXIBUBIANCHUI,DUNHUANGSUOJUYOUDEKONGEDONGXIJIAOTONGDETESHUDILIWEIZHI,SHITACHENGWEIHANWANGCHAOJINGLVEXIYUDEQIAOTOUBAO,DIANDINGLEDUNHUANGWENHUADEWUTAI。

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  CONGHANDAIXUANQUANZHIYIZHICHUTUDEXIHANZHAODI(GONGYUANQIAN86—QIAN74NIAN)YIHOUDEJIANDUBIAOMING,XUANQUANZHIYIZHANDEYIGEZHONGYAOZHINENGSHIJIEDAIXIYUZHUGUOLAIHANTINGDESHIJIE,CENGJIEDAIGUOLAIWANGYUHANTINGHEXIYUZHIJIANDEDAYUESHI、KANGJU、GUIZI、JIBIN、DAWAN、WUSUN、YUTIAN、JINGJUEDENG29GUOSHIJIE。DUNHUANGZAIDONGHANMINGDI(GONGYUAN58—75NIAN)SHIQIJIUJIANG“FUTU”ZHEIYIJUYOUTEDINGWENHUANEIHANHEZHIXIANGDEWAILAICIYUYONGZUODIMING,KEJIANDUNHUANGZUOWEIHANWANGCHAOXICHUIJUNZHI,YICHENGWEILEJIEYIYUWENMINGDECHUANGKOUHEWENHUAJIAORONGDESHOUSHANZHIQU。HANMOSANGUOQIJIANLAIHUADEZHUMINGYIJINGGAOSENG、JUSHIANSHIGAO、ANXUAN、ZHILOUJIACHEN、ZHIQIAN、KANGJU、KANGMENGXIANG、KANGSENGHUI、BAIYANDENG,ZHENGSHIFENBIELAIZIXIYUDEANXI、DAYUESHI、KANGJU、GUIZIDENGGUO。SANGUOLIANGJINZHISHILIUGUOSHIQI,FOJIAOZAIDUNHUANGZHUJIANZHAGEN,YUZHONGGUOCHUANTONGDERUJIAWENHUA、DAOJIAOWENHUABINGCUNBINGJIN,FAZHANCHENGWEIDANGDIDEZHUYAOZONGJIAOZHIYI。SHIZAOYUQIANQINJIANYUANERNIAN(GONGYUAN366NIAN)DEMOGAOKU,ZESHIDUNHUANGFOJIAOWENHUAFAZHANDEZUIXIANZHUBIAOZHI。

  敦煌是河西诸绿洲中为戈壁环绕的最小绿洲,适宜的自然和文化生态环境,不仅使这里成为一千余年各朝开窟不辍、历代造像迭新的特殊佛教圣地,更以遗存的大量中古文书与其他各类文物成为著名的人类文化遗产。图为敦煌莫高窟九层楼全景。 敦煌研究院供图 吴健/摄

  ZHONGGUOXIANCUNSIDASHIKUZHONG,YUNGANG、LONGMENSHIKUJIEYINBEIWEIZHUDIYOUQISHIXIAOWENDISUOZHI,SUIJUNDICHUJINGDOU,DANYINRENZHIFEI,GUDOUJUYOUHENQIANGDESHIDUANXING。MAIJISHANSHIKUZUIDESHANSHUIDILILINGXIU,ZISHISHANSENGDUNSHIYINXIUDEBUERZHIXUAN。ERDUNHUANGSHIHEXIZHULVZHOUZHONGWEIGEBIHUANRAODEZUIXIAOLVZHOU,QIJINGJISHILIYUDIDOUJIKAIFAJIAOZAODEGANSUDONGBUXIANGJIAO,CHAJUZHIDABUKEYIDAOLIJI。DANYOUSHISHENMEYUANYINSHICONGDONGERLAIDELEZUNHEFALIANGDUDUCHUIQINGYUCINI?

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  BANSUIZHE20SHIJICHUDUNHUANGSHIKUZANGJINGDONGWENXIANDEFAXIAN、LIUSANHECHUANBO,ZAIZHONGHUAWENHUADEPUXIZHONGCUISHENGLEJUSHIZHUMUDE“DUNHUANGXUE”,SHIDUNHUANGZOUXIANGSHIJIE。WANGGUOWEIXIANSHENGJIANGYINXUJIAGUWEN、DUNHUANGSAISHANGJIXIYUDEHANJINMUJIAN、DUNHUANGSHIKUZANGJINGDONGDELIUCHAOJITANGRENXIEBEN、BEIJINGNEIGEDAKUDEYUANMINGYILAISHUJIDANGCECHENGZUO19SHIJIMOZHI20SHIJICHUZHONGGUOXUESHUSHISHANGDESIDAFAXIAN,ERDUNHUANGYIDISUOCHUBIANZHANQIER。QIZHONGDUNHUANGSAISHANGMUJIANSHIZHISITANYINZAIDUNHUANGZHANGCHENGYIZHICAIJIDESHUBAIMEIMUJIAN。20SHIJI90NIANDAICHU,DUNHUANGXUANQUANZHIYIZHIKAOGUFAJUEYOUHUOHANJINMUJIANSHUWANMEI。ZHEIXIEKEXUEFAJUEDEMUJIANZILIAOJIDADICHONGSHILEDUNHUANGWENHUADENEIHAN。

U赢电竞app  DUNHUANGWENHUADENEIHANFEICHANGGUANGFAN,ZUOWEIYIDIGUANMINGDEDIYUWENHUA,QIHEXINWUYIYINGYIDUNHUANGMUJIANHEDUNHUANGSHIKUQUN(DUNHUANGMOGAOKU、XIQIANFODONG,GUAZHOUYULINKU、DONGQIANFODONGJISUBEIWUGEMIAOSHIKUDENG)DESHIKUKAOGU、SHIKUYISHUYIJIZANGJINGDONGWENXIANDEZONGHEYANJIUWEIBIAOZHI。

  DUNHUANGFOJIAODEFAZHANYUXINGSHENG,LIDAISHIJIADAZU、SHENZHIHUANGSHIGUIZUSHIZHUYAOTUIDONGZHE。ZAIMOGAOKU,FANSHIGUIMOHONGDA、YISHUJINGMEIDEDONGKUDUOWEISHIJIADAZUSUOJIAN,QIEXINGCHENGYIZHONGCHUANTONG: WANGWANGYIJIAYIKU,HUOYIZUSHUKU,HUOFUZIXIANGJI、SHENZHIZUCHUANGSUNXIUDEYINGJIANCHUANTONG。ZAISHIJIADAZUHEHUANGSHIGUIZUDEDAIDONGXIA,XIAJIGUANLIHEYIBANSHISHUMINZHONGYEREZHONGYUKAIKUZAOXIANG。CHUMOGAOKUWAI,ZAIDUNHUANGXIQIANFODONG、SUBEIWUGEMIAO、GUAZHOUYULINKUDENG,DOULIUXIALEDALIANGDESENGSUGEJIECENGMINZHONGKAIZAODEDONGKU。

U赢电竞app  JIEKAIFOJIAOJIAOYIDESHENMIWEIMAN,DUNHUANGBIHUAFENGFUDUOCAIDEFOGUOSHIJIEZHENGSHIDANGSHIXIANSHISHIJIEDEZHENSHIZHESHE。UYINGDIANJINGappCONGFANSHENGSHENMIDEZONGJIAOWENHUADEBEIJINGXIA,SUOKANDAODEDANGSHIRENMENDESHENGCHANSHENGHUO、MINSUJIEQING、HUNSANGJIAQU、XINUAILEDENGRENSHENGBAITAI,RUNONGZUOTUZHONGDEMANZUHEQINQIE、JIAQUTUZHONGDEXIYUEHERELIEDENG,JIUBUZAIYOUSHIJIANDEJULIERKEYIZHIJIEDUIHUA;JIANZHU、FUSHI、YONGJU、GONGJUDENGJUYOUBUTONGSHIDAILUOYINDEWUZHIZAOXING,RUPUTONGMINJUDEPOSHIKEXIN、DIDOUCHONGLOUDETIANGUOLANBEN,ZESIHUCHUSHOUKEJI、KEGANKEZHI,CONGERGOUCHENGDUNHUANGZHONGGUSHIQIHUOLINGHUOXIANDESHEHUIWENHUAFAZHANYANBIANDETUPU。DUNHUANGBIHUASUOBAOHANHEZHIJIEFANYINGDELISHI、MINZU、WENHUA、JIAOYU、JINGJI、JIANZHU、KEJI、MINSU、SHENGCHANSHENGHUO、YILIAOWEISHENG、DONGXIUYINGDIANJINGapp、HANJINCHUANTONGWENHUAYUFOJIAOWENHUADEGUANXI、SIYUAN、ZONGJIAO、ZONGJIAOLIUPAI、CANSHANYIGUI、SHIKUXINGZHI、SHIKU(BIHUA、DIAOSU)YISHU、SHIZUGUANXI、GONGYANGFANGSHIDENGFENGFUNEIHAN,JIUBUZAISHICHOUXIANGDEGAINIAN。TAMENBUJINSHIQUZHIBUJINYONGZHIBUJIEDEDONGXIWENMINGJIAORONGDEWENHUABAOZANG,ERQIEHAIJUYOUGUDAIWENMINGDEBOWUGUANGONGNENG。

  ZAIDUNHUANGWENXIANZHONG,JINZANGJINGDONGCHUTUWENXIANJIUDAWUWANDUOJIAN,MUQIANKEZHIYOUMINGQUEJINIANZHESHANGQIXIJINYONGXINGERNIAN(GONGYUAN305NIAN),XIAZHIBEISONGXIANPINGWUNIAN(GONGYUAN1002NIAN),JIASHANGDUNHUANGSHIKUBEIQUJINNIANKAOGUFAJUECHUTUDEXIXIAWEN、HUIGUWEN、ZANGWEN、MENGWEN(HANBASIBAWEN)、FANWEN(HANPOLUOMIWEN)DEYUANDAIFOJIAODIANJIYIJIXULIYAWEN《SHENGJING》ZHAILUDENGWENXIAN,TADEQIZHISHANGXIAXIANYUDUNHUANGSHIKUDEKAIZAOJIBENTONGBU,YELISHIQIANNIAN。ZHEIXIEWENXIANYIDUOZHONGWENZIDEXIEBENWEIZHU,HAIYOUSHAOLIANGYINBEN。YUEZHAN90%DEFOJIAODIANZANGZHUZUOBUJINCHONGFENZHANSHILEDUNHUANGDIQUHUOYUEDEFOJIAOWENHUABEIJINGHEZHUJIAZHENGMING、BINGCUNDELIANGHAOWENHUAFENWEI,FOJIAOWENXIANBENSHENHAIJUYOUJIWEINANDEDESHIYIBUQUEHEXIAOKANDELISHIWENHUAJIAZHI。ERDAOJIAO、JINGJIAO(JIDUJIAO)、MONIJIAODIANJIHEGUZANGWEN、SUTEWEN、YUTIANWEN、HUIGUWEN、FANWENFOJIAODIANJI,CONGYIGECEMIANFANYINGDUOYUANWENHUAUYINGDIANJINGappDEMIANMAO。QITAWENXIANSUIZONGLIANGBUDA,NEIRONGQUEJIWEIFENGFU,SHEJIZHENGZHI、JINGJI、JUNSHI、DILI、MINZU、YUYAN、WENXUE、JIAOYU、TIANWEN、LIFA、SUANXUE、YIXUE、KEJI、MEISHU、YINLE、WUDAO、TIYUDENG,JIHUBAOHANLEZHONGGUSHIQISHEHUIWENHUADEGEGEFANGMIAN,ERQIEWENHUANEIHANYUANYUANTUPOLEDUNHUANGBENSHENDEDIYUJUXIAN,ZUYIDAIBIAOZHONGHUAWENMINGJIYUXIFANGWENMINGDEWENHUAUYINGDIANJINGappBEIJING,YINERKANCHENGZHONGGUOZHONGGUSHIQIDEBAIKEQUANSHU。

U赢电竞app  YOUYUDUNHUANGDIQUDUOMINZU、DUOZHONGZONGJIAO、DUOZHONGWENHUAZHANGQIBINGCUN,ZHISHISHEHUISHENGHUODEGEGEFANGMIANDOUTIXIANCHUXIANMINGDEDIYUWENHUATEDIAN。RUTEDINGDILITIAOJIANXIAFADADESHANGYEJINGJISHENGHUOXINGTAI、FUZADECHENGSHIJUZHUBUJU、DUTEDEYINSHIJIEGOUHEXINGSHI、HUAMEIDUOZIDEFUSHIZHUANGBAN、JUYOUNONGYUFOJIAOFENWEIDESUISHIJIELING、BUQICHUANTONGSHANRONGXINSUDEJIAQUSANGZANGDENG,QISHEHUISHENGHUODEFENGFUDUOCAI,LINGRENMUBUXIAJIE。

  DANGZHONGGUODESICHOU、TAOCI、ZHIZHANGDENGTONGGUOSICHOUZHILUYUANYUANBUDUANDICHUANDAOXIFANGSHI,XIFANGRENYETONGSHIDAILAILEZHONGGUOGUOQUSUOMEIYOUDEPUTAO、MUXU、YUJINXIANGDENGZHIWU,SHIZI、BAOJIXIYUMINGMADENG,HAIYOUJINGMEIGONGYIPIN,RUJINSHUGONGYI、LIULIHEBOLI、NIRONG、MAOTANJIGEZHONGZHUANGSHIWUDENG。XUDUOWAILAIDEWUPINZAIDUNHUANGBIHUAZHONGLIUXIALEDALIANGDEXINGXIANGZILIAO,RUCHUTANGDI209、329DENGKUDEZAOJINGTUANZHONGDEWENYANGZHUANGSHI。DUNHUANGBIHUASHOUYINDUHEXIYUDEYINGXIANG,QIZHONGDESHIZIHEDAXIANGDENGXINGXIANG,YEMIAOHUIDEBIJIAOZHENSHI。

  NANBEICHAODAOSUITANGSHIQI,BOSIDEGONGYIPINTONGGUOSICHOUZHILUDALIANGCHUANRULEZHONGGUO,RUSHOULIEXINGXIANGSHIGUDAIBOSIZUILIUXINGDEZHUTI,BIAOXIANSHOULIEXINGXIANGDEYINPANJIUCENGZAIZHONGGUOBEIFANGDUOYOUFAXIAN。BOSISASHANCHAO(3—5SHIJI)ZHENGSHILUOMADIGUOQIANGSHENGDESHIDAI,OUZHOUDELUOMAWENHUA、XIYADEBOSIWENHUAYUZHONGGUOWENHUAZAICONGZHONGYADAOXIYADELIAOKUODIYUXIANGPENGZHUANG,CHUCHULIUXIALEWENMINGJIAOHUIDEYINHEN。DUNHUANGXIWEIDI249KUKUDINGBIHUAZHONGJIUYOUBOSIFENGGEDESHOULIETU。SUIDAOCHUTANGSHIQIDUNHUANGCAISUYUBIHUAPUSADEFUSHIZHONG,CHUXIANDALIANGDEBOSIWENSHI,RULIANZHUDUINIAOWEN、LIANZHUDUISHOUWEN、LINGGESHIFENGWENDENG。

  BOLI、LIULIZUICHUCHUANRUZHONGGUOSHI,ZHIYOUDIWANGHEYIXIEGUIZUNENGGOUYONGYOU。ZAISUITANGDUNHUANGBIHUAZHONG,RUCHUTANGDI401KUDEPUSASHOUCHIBOLIWAN,WANBIANHAIXIANGQIANZHEBAOZHU,SHENGTANGDI199KUDEPUSAYESHOUPENGYIBOLIBEI,BEIZHONGCHAHUA。LEISIDEBOLIQIMIN,ZAIBUSHAODONGKUBIHUAZHONGJUNYOUCHUXIAN,FANYINGLEDANGSHIBOLIQIMINDELIUXING。XIANGLUZUOWEILIFODEGONGQI,WANGWANGJIEJIANWAIGUOYANGSHIERZHIZUO。

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  敦煌文化展现了中华民族的文化精神、文化胸怀和文化自信

  XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZAIDUNHUANGYANJIUYUANDEJIANGHUAZHONGSHENKEZHICHU,YANJIUHEHONGYANGDUNHUANGWENHUA,JIYAOSHENRUWAJUEDUNHUANGWENHUAHELISHIYICUNBEIHOUYUNHANDEZHEXUESIXIANG、RENWENJINGSHEN、JIAZHILINIAN、DAODEGUIFANDENG,TUIDONGZHONGHUAYOUXIUCHUANTONGWENHUACHUANGZAOXINGZHUANHUA、CHUANGXINXINGFAZHAN,GENGYAOJIESHIYUNHANQIZHONGDEZHONGHUAMINZUDEWENHUAJINGSHEN、WENHUAXIONGHUAIHEWENHUAZIXIN。

U赢电竞app  DALIANGDEGELEILISHIWENWUYICUN,QISHIUYINGDIANJINGappQURENSHIDUNHUANGWENHUANEIHANDEBODAJINGSHEN。ZAIXIANGDANGZHANGDELISHISHIQINEI,FOJIAOZAIGUDAIDUNHUANGZONGJIAOWENHUAZHONGSHIZHONGZHANJUZHEZHUYAODIWEI。FOJIAOWENHUADECHANGSHENG,BUJINTIXIANZAIZHONGGUODACHENGFOJIAODEGEGEZHUYAOSIXIANGZONGPAIDEXIANGHUCUJINHEFAZHAN,CHUANYI、CHAOXIEFOJINGYIJIKAIKUZAOXIANG、JUXINGFAHUIDENGZHENGTONGDEZONGJIAOHUODONGDEPINFANHEGUIMO,YETIXIANZAIDUNHUANGGUDAIRENMINDERICHANGSHENGHUO、SUISHIJIEQINGHEYULEHUODONGZHONGSUOFANYINGDEJIHUWUSHI、WUCHUBUZAIDEFOJIAOWENHUAYINJI。TONGSHI,DAOJIAOZUOWEITUSHENGTUZHANGDEZHONGGUOZONGJIAO,YEYITASUOTEYOUDEGENSHENDIGUDEDUOSHENCHONGBAIDESIXIANGFANGFACUNZAIYUGUDAIDUNHUANG。LINGWAI,QITAWAILAIZONGJIAORUXIANJIAO、MONIJIAO、JINGJIAOHEYISILANJIAODENG,YEZAITEDINGDEMINZUWENHUAQUANNEICHANGXINGQIDAO。DUNHUANGWENHUAZHEIYIXIANXIANGDEJIAZHIZAIYUBUTONGWENHUAJIAZHITIXIDEHEMUXIANGCHU。

  敦煌佛教洞窟的兴建,历代世家大族、甚至皇室贵族是主要推动者。壁画反映了当时人们的现实生活和人生百态。图为段文杰临摹的莫高窟第130窟甬道南壁盛唐时期都督夫人供养像壁画。 敦煌研究院供图 吴健/摄

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  莫高窟第285窟有西魏大统四年(538年)、五年(539年)的题记,是莫高窟最早有明确纪年的洞窟。这一洞窟带有明显的中原风格特征,窟顶都有飞动的彩云和各种传说中的神怪,其中还有中国的神仙,反映了外来佛教与中国本土文化的融合。图为莫高窟第285窟的洞窟形制。 敦煌研究院供图

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  铸牢中华民族共同体意识

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  保护传承文化遗产 彰显中国特色社会主义文化自信

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  盛唐时期的敦煌彩塑写实性很强。高超的写实技巧使这些塑像栩栩如生,同时艺术家非常注意雕塑的群体性。第45窟这一组7身彩塑,以佛为中心,左右大体对称排列,塑像目光俯视,参观者会感到每身塑像都在看着你。图为莫高窟第45窟西壁龛内彩塑。 敦煌研究院供图 张伟文/摄

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