U赢电竞app

老子“宠辱若惊”新解

2020年07月18日 11:54:19
来源:U赢电竞app_U赢电竞手机版_主页

U赢电竞app  “CHONGRUBUJING”SHIYIGECHANGYONGCHENGYU,BINGYOUCIYINCHULINGYIGECHENGYU——SHOUCHONGRUOJING,ZHEILIANGGECHENGYUZUIZAOCHUZI《LAOZI》SHISANZHANG:

U赢电竞app  CHONGRURUOJING,GUIDAHUANRUOSHEN。HEWEICHONGRURUOJING?CHONGWEISHANG,RUWEIXIA,DEZHIRUOJING,SHIZHIRUOJING,SHIWEICHONGRURUOJING。HEWEIGUIDAHUANRUOSHEN?WUSUOYIYOUDAHUANZHE,WEIWUYOUSHEN,JIWUWUSHEN,WUYOUHEHUAN?GUGUIYISHENWEITIANXIA,RUOKEJITIANXIA;AIYISHENWEITIANXIA,RUOKETUOTIANXIA。

U赢电竞app  ZHEIDUANHUAZHONGDE“CHONGRURUOJING”,BEIXUEJIEPUBIANJIESHIWEI: “DECHONGDERU,SHICHONGSHIRU,JIERUOJINGZHE。”(GAOHENG《LAOZIZHENGGU》)“DECHONGHESHOURUDOUGANDAOJINGHUANGSHICUO。”(CHENGUYING《LAOZIZHUYIJIPINGJIE》)“SHOUCHONGJINGXIERSHOURUJINGKONG。CHONGRU,DOUYONGRUDONGCI,ZHISHOUDAOCHONGRU。”(ZHANGSONGHUI《LAOZIXINJIE》)《XIANDAIHANYUCIDIAN》YEBA“CHONGRUBUJING”JIESHIWEI: “SHOUCHONGHUOSHOURUDOUBUWEISUODONG。”

  ZHEIXIEJIESHIZHAKANQILAI,HENYOUDAOLI,YEFUHECHANGLI,DANLIANXI《LAOZI》QUANSHUJIBENZHANGNEIRONG,JIUHUIFAXIANZHEIYIJIESHIBINGBUFUHELAOZIYUANYI。《LAOZI》QUANSHUDEZHUZHISHIZAITAOLUNZUIGAOTONGZHIZHEDEPINXINGYUZHIGUOFANGLVE,BENZHANGYEBULIWAI,YINCIBENZHANGZUIHOUZHICHU: “GUGUIYISHENWEITIANXIA,RUOKEJITIANXIA;AIYISHENWEITIANXIA,RUOKETUOTIANXIA。”LAOZIRENWEIZHIYOUCHONGRUBUJINGDEWANGUYINGDIANJINGappZHIRENCAIKEYITUOFUTIANXIA。KEYITUOFUTIANXIAZHE,ZIRANFEITIANZIMOSHU。HUANYANZHI,BENZHANGSHIJIUTIANZIPINDEERYAN。JIRANSHIJIUTIANZIERYAN,NEIME“SHOUCHONG”ERZIJIUSHIQUSUOZHIDUIXIANG,YINWEITIANZISHIZUIGAOTONGZHIZHE,ZHIYOUTAYOUZIGEQUCHONGXINGBIEREN,NALIHAIHUIYOUSHENMERENYOUZIGEQUCHONGXINGTIANZINI?

  CHUXIANZHEIZHONGWUJIE,SHIYINWEIHOURENDUOCONG“SHOUCHONG”“CHONGXING”ZHEIYICHANGYONGYIQULIJIE“CHONG”ZI,ERHULVELE“CHONG”HAIYOUYIGEGENGWEIYUANSHI、ERJINRENJIAOSHAOSHIYONGDEHANYI——ZUNCHONG、ZUNGUI。《SHUOWEN·MIANBU》: “CHONG,ZUNJUYE。”“CHONG”DEZUIZAOHANYISHI“JUYUZUNGUIZHIWEI”。ZHEIYIYONGFAZAIGUJIZHONGJINGCHANGCHUXIAN,RU《GUOYU·CHUYUXIA》: “CHONGSHENQIZU,YIQUWEIYUMIN。”WEIZHAOZHU: “CHONG,ZUNYE。”《HANSHU·NINGXINGCHUAN》: “ZHUFUYIZHEJIEDECHONGWEI。”SUOWEI“CHONGWEI”,JIZUNGUIDEDIWEI。“CHONG”HAIYOUYIGEYUZUNGUIJINSIDEHANYI——RONGYAO。《GUOYU·CHUYUSHANG》: “HEHECHUGUO,ERJUNLINZHI,FUZHENGNANHAI,XUNJIZHUXIA,QICHONGDAYI。”WEIZHAOZHU: “CHONG,RONGYE。”JIRAN“CHONG”YOUZUNGUI、RONGYAODEYISI,NEIMEYU“CHONG”XIANGDUIDE“RU”,ZESHIDIJIAN、QURUDEYISI。ZAI《LAOZI》ZHONG,UYINGDIANJINGappYENENGZHAODAONEIZHENG: “ZHIQIRONG,SHOUQIRU,WEITIANXIAGU。”(ERSHIBAZHANG)“RONG”“RU”GOUCHENGYIDUIFANYICI。

U赢电竞app  GUANYU“CHONGRURUOJING”DE“JING”,XUEJIEDOUBATAJIESHIWEICHIJING、JINGKONG。RUGUOANZHAOJINGKONGDEYISILIJIE,JIUHUIYOUYIXIEZHIAIBUTONGDEDIFANG: SHOURUGUKEYINQIJINGKONG,SHOUCHONGHEBIJINGKONG?SUIRANBUSHAOXUEZHEQUWEIZHIJIE,DANZHONGBUSHUNCHANG。ZHEILIDE“JING”YINGWEIDONGLUAN、BUANDEYISI。《CIYUAN》: “JING: LUANMAO。《LVSHICHUNQIU·SHENDA》: ‘ZHONGSHUMINMIN,JIEYOUYUANZHI,MOGANZHIYAN,QISHENGRUOJING。’ZHU: ‘JING,LUANMAO,MINBUGANBAOQISHENGYE。’”《YUEYANGLOUJI》ZHONGDE“BOLANBUJING”DE“JING”JIUSHIDONGDANGBUANDEYISI,HOURENCHANGYONG“BOLANBUJING”XINGRONGXINJINGPINGJING。LAOZIDE“CHONGRURUOJING”DE“JING”,ZHIDEJIUSHINEIXINDONGDANGBUAN。

U赢电竞app  LAOZIDEYISISHISHUO,ZUOWEISHENGWANG,WULUNSHENCHUZUNGUIDIWEI,HAISHISHENCHUWEIXIANJINGDI,DOUNENGTANRANCHUZHI,XINLIBUHUICHANSHENGRENHEBODONG。SHENCHUZUNGUIDIWEIERNEIXINPINGJINGRUCHANGDEDIWANGDIANFANSHISHUN、YU。《LUNYU·TAIBO》: “ZIYUE: ‘WEIWEIHU!SHUN、YUZHIYOUTIANXIAYE,ERBUYUYAN。’”ZHUXI《LUNYUJIZHU》JIESHISHUO: “BUYU,YOUYANBUXIANGGUAN,YANQIBUYIWEIWEILEYE。”SHENCHUTIANZIZHIWEIDESHUN、YUBINGBUYINWEIDIWEIDEZUNGUIERZHANZHANZIXI。《ZHUANGZI·XIAOYAOYOU》BAZHEIYANGDESHENGJUNCHENGWEI“SHENREN”,GUOXIANGMIAOSHUSHENRENSHUO: “FUSHENRENJIJINSUOWEISHENGRENYE。FUSHENGRENSUIZAIMIAOTANGZHISHANG,RANQIXINWUYIYUSHANLINZHIZHONG,SHIQISHIZHIZAI!TUJIANQIDAIHUANGWU,PEIYUXI,BIANWEIZUYIYINGFUQIXINYI;JIANQILISHANCHUAN,TONGMINSHI,BIANWEIZUYIQIAOCUIQISHENYI;QIZHIZHIZHIZHEZHIBUKUIZAI!”(《ZHUANGZIZHU》)DIWEIZUNGUIDESHENGJUNYUYINJUSHANLINDEYINSHIJUYOUYIYANGDEPINGJINGXINJING。

  SHENCHUNIJINGERNENGGOUBAOCHIXINJINGPINGJINGDEDIWANGDIANFANYINGSHIZHOUWENWANG。《SHIJI·ZHOUBENJI》ZAI: “QIQIUYOULI,GAIYI《YI》ZHIBAGUAWEILIUSHISIGUA。”ZHOUWENWANGBEISHANGZHOUWANGQIUJINZAIYOULISHI,SUISHIDOUYOUKENENGBEISHAHAI,RANERTAXINJINGRUCHANG,YIRANNENGGOUANXINDICONGSHIXUESHUYANJIU。

  ZHEIXIESHENGWANGZHISUOYINENGGOUZUODAOZHEIYIDIAN,SHIYINWEITAMENYIJINGZUODAOLEBENZHANGSHUODE“WUSHEN”。GUANYU“WUSHEN”,FENGYOULANJIESHISHUO: “RENMENDEXUDUOMAFAN,ZHENGSHIYINWEIRENMENYOUZHEIGESHENTI,RUGUOMEIYOUZHEIGESHENTI,YIQIEMAFANYEDOUMEIYOULE,YEDOUCONGGENBENSHANGJIEJUELE。”(《ZHONGGUOZHEXUESHIXINBIAN》DI2CE)RENJIYU《LAOZIXINYI(XIUDINGBEN)》BAZHEIDUANHUAFANYIWEI: “UYINGDIANJINGappSUOYIYOUDAHUAN(XURONG),YOUYUYOULEUYINGDIANJINGappDESHENTI;RUOMEIYOUUYINGDIANJINGappDESHENTI,UYINGDIANJINGappHAIYOUSHENMEHUOHUANNI?”BINGJIESHISHUO: “TARENWEIYOUXUDUOMAFAN,SHIYOUYUZIJIZHEIGERENDECUNZAIERYINQIDE,WEILEBIMIANJIZIJIZHAOLAIYOUHUAN,ZUIHAOBUYAOSHENTI。SHENTIDOUBUCUNZAILE,HAIYOUSHENMEYOUHUANNI?ZHAOZHEIYANGDELUOJI,WEILEBIMIANYATONG,JIUBUYAOYACHI,WEILEBUFANCUOWU,JIUBUYAOGONGZUO。”RUGUOBA“WUSHEN”LIJIEWEIXIAOMIEZISHEN,JIUYULAOZI“ZHANGSHENGJIUSHI”(WUSHIJIUZHANG)DESIXIANGYANZHONGDIWU。SHIJISHANG,LAOZIDE“WUSHEN”JIUSHIRENMENSHUODE“WUUYINGDIANJINGapp”“WANGUYINGDIANJINGapp”“WUSI”,YEJI《XIAOYAOYOU》SHUODE“ZHIRENWUJI”。LAOZIRENWEIYIGERENZHISUOYIHUI“CHONGRURUOJING”,YUANYINJIUZAIYUBAZISHENLIYIKANDETAIZHONG。RUGUOYIGERENDADAOLEWUSI、WANGUYINGDIANJINGappDEJINGJIE,BAGUIJIANRONGRUZHIZHIDUWAI,TAJIUBUHUIYINCIERDONGXIN,SHENZHIGENBENBUHUIYOURONGRUZHIXIN。

  ANZHAOZHEIYILIJIE,BENZHANGKEFANYIWEI: “RUGUODIWEIDEZUNGUIHUODIJIANNENGGOUSHIZHIDONGXINDEHUA,NEISHIYINWEITABADAZAINAN(DAOJIASHIMINGLIWEIZAINAN)KANDEXIANGSHENGMINGYIYANGZHONGYAO。HEWEI‘CHONGRURUOJING’?BAZUNGUIDIWEISHIWEIRONGYAO,BADIJIANDIWEIKANDEBEIXIA,SUOYIDEDAOZHEIXIEDIWEIHUIDONGXIN,SHIQUZHEIXIEDIWEIYEHUIDONGXIN,ZHEIJIUJIAO‘CHONGRURUOJING’。HEWEI‘GUIDAHUANRUOSHEN’?UYINGDIANJINGappYOUZHEIXIEZAINANDEYUANYIN,SHIYINWEITAIKANZHONGZIUYINGDIANJINGapp,RUGUONENGGOUZUODAOWUUYINGDIANJINGapp,UYINGDIANJINGappHAIHUIYOUSHENMEZAINANNI?YINCI,ZHIYOUZHONGSHIQUANSHENXINTOURUZHILITIANXIADEREN,CAIKEBATIANXIAJIAOFUJITA;ZHIYOUYUANYIQUANSHENXINTOURUZHILITIANXIADEREN,CAIKEBATIANXIATUOFUJITA。”BENZHANGJIANGDEDAOLIYUDIQIZHANGJIANGDE“SHENGRENHOUQISHENERSHENXIAN,WAIQISHENERSHENCUN。FEIYIQIWUSIXIE?GUNENGCHENGQISI”YIZHI,TIANZIYIWUSIJINGSHENZHILIGUOJIA,GUOJIAZHILIDEANDINGXIANGHE,FANGUOLAIYECHENGJIULETIANZIDE“SILI”。

U赢电竞app  BENZHANGZHUYAOSHIZAITAOLUNTIANZIDESIXIANGJINGJIE,DANZHEIZHONGJINGJIEYEKEYITIXIANZAIQITARENSHENSHANG。《SHIZI》YIWENSHUO: “WEILINGYINERBUXI,TUIGENGERBUYOU,CISUNSHUAOZHIDEYE。”《ZHUANGZI·TIANZIFANG》DUICIJIZAIDEGENGXIANGXI: “JIANWUWENYUSUNSHUAOYUE: ‘ZISANWEILINGYINERBURONGHUA,SANQUZHIERWUYOUSE。WUSHIYEYIZI,JINSHIZIZHIBIJIANXUXURAN,ZIZHIYONGXINDUNAIHE?’SUNSHUAOYUE: ‘WUHEYIGUORENZAI!WUYIQILAIBUKEQUEYE,QIQUBUKEZHIYE,WUYIWEIDESHIZHIFEIUYINGDIANJINGappYE,ERWUYOUSEERYIYI。UYINGDIANJINGappHEYIGUORENZAI!QIEBUZHIQIZAIBIHU?QIZAIUYINGDIANJINGappHU?QIZAIBIXIE,WANGHUUYINGDIANJINGapp;ZAIUYINGDIANJINGappXIE,WANGHUBI。FANGJIANGCHOUCHU,FANGJIANGSIGU,HEXIAZHIHURENGUIRENJIANZAI!’”SUNSHUAOSANCIDANRENZAIXIANGERBUYICIWEIRONG,SANCIBEIBAGUANERBUYICIWEIYOU,DIWEIDEGAOGUIYUDIJIANDOUWUFAYINQISUNSHUAOXINJINGDEBODONG,ZHEIJIUSHIDIANXINGDE“CHONGRUBUJING”,YEJIBUWEIFUGUIPINJIANERDONGXIN。

   (作者: 张景,系江苏师范大学哲学范式研究院讲师)

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